Source Citations for Evidence Based Information

ENDS Devices: Evidence Based Information

 

 As Compared to Burning Tobacco:

McNeill, A., Brose, L., Calder, R., Hitchman, S. C., Hajek, P., & McRobbie, H. (2015). E-cigarettes: An evidence update: A report commissioned by Public Health England. Public Health England. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/457102/Ecigarettes_an_evidence_update_A_report_commissioned_by_Public_Health_England_FINAL.pdf

Quote(s): “In a nutshell, best estimates show e-cigarettes are 95% less harmful to your health than normal cigarettes, and when supported by a smoking cessation service, help most smokers to quit tobacco altogether”

“There has been an overall shift towards the inaccurate perception of EC being as harmful as cigarettes over the last year in contrast to the current expert estimate that using EC is around 95% safer than smoking.”

Campagna, D., Cibella, F., Caponnetto, P., Amaradio, M. D., Caruso, M., Morjaria, J. B., & Polosa, R. (2016). Changes in breathomics from a 1-year randomized smoking cessation trial of electronic cigarettes. European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 46(8), 698+. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?p=AONE&sw=w&u=lom_accessmich&v=2.1&it=r&id=GALE%7CA459277163&asid=e090fb53e75aa1684a4ba8387c015c2e

Quote(s): “Smokers invited to switch to electronic cigarettes who completely abstained from smoking showed steady progressive improvements in their exhaled breath measurements and symptom scores.”

Burstyn I. (2014). Peering through the mist: systematic review of what the chemistry of contaminants in electronic cigarettes tells us about health risks. BMC Public Health,14(1),18. Retrieved from http://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2458-14-18

Quote(s): “Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) are present in trace quantities and pose no more (likely much less) threat to health than TSNAs from modern smokeless tobacco products, which cause no measurable risk for cancer”

McRobbie, H., Phillips, A., Goniewicz, M., Smith, K., Knight-West, O., Przulj, D., & Hajek, P. (2015). Effects of switching to electronic cigarettes with and without concurrent smoking on exposure to nicotine, carbon monoxide, and acrolein. Cancer Prev Res, 8, 873-878. Retrieved from http://cancerpreventionresearch.aacrjournals.org/content/8/9/873.full.pdf+html

Quote(s): “the finding concerning acrolein is that in dual users, EC use significantly reduces rather than increases exposure to this toxicant. As expected, dual use also reduced smoke intake generally, as indexed by expired CO levels.”

 

Success Rates and Suggetions: (Electronic cigarettes are not FDA approved as smoking cessation devices)

McNeill, A., Brose, L., Calder, R., Hitchman, S. C., Hajek, P., & McRobbie, H. (2015). E-cigarettes: An evidence update: A report commissioned by Public Health England. Public Health England. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/457102/Ecigarettes_an_evidence_update_A_report_commissioned_by_Public_Health_England_FINAL.pdf

Quote(s): “Recent studies support the Cochrane Review findings that EC can help people to quit smoking and reduce their cigarette consumption. There is also evidence that EC can encourage quitting or cigarette consumption reduction even among those not intending to quit or rejecting other support. More research is needed in this area.”

“Smokers who have tried other methods of quitting without success could be encouraged to try e-cigarettes (EC) to stop smoking and stop smoking services should support smokers using EC to quit by offering them behavioural support.”

“Encouraging smokers who cannot or do not want to stop smoking to switch to EC could help reduce smoking related disease, death and health inequalities.”

Siegel, M., Tanwar, K., & Wood, K. (2011) Electronic cigarettes as a smoking cessation tool: Results from an online survey. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 40(4),472-475. Retrieved from http://www.ajpmonline.org/article/S0749-3797(10)00792-0/fulltext

Quote(s): “The primary finding was that the 6-month point prevalence of smoking abstinence among the e-cigarette users in the sample was 31.0% (95% CI=24.8%, 37.2%). A large percentage of respondents reported a reduction in the number of cigarettes they smoked (66.8%) and almost half reported abstinence from smoking for a period of time (48.8%). Those respondents using e-cigarettes more than 20 times per day had a quit rate of 70.0%. Of respondents who were not smoking at 6 months, 34.3% were not using e-cigarettes or any nicotine-containing products at the time.”

McRobbie, H., Phillips, A., Goniewicz, M., Smith, K., Knight-West, O., Przulj, D., & Hajek, P. (2015). Effects of switching to electronic cigarettes with and without concurrent smoking on exposure to nicotine, carbon monoxide, and acrolein. Cancer Prev Res, 8, 873-878. Retrieved from http://cancerpreventionresearch.aacrjournals.org/content/8/9/873.full.pdf+html

Quote(s): “It is interesting to note that only 15% of participants dropped out during the first 4 weeks of treatment, which is less than what we normally observe in studies using traditional stop-smoking medications. For instance, in a recently completed trial where participants received the standard UK Stop Smoking Service treatment with support identical to the current study, 46% of participants dropped-out by 4 weeks (28). EC may thus improve treatment retention compared with traditional treatments.”

 

Public and Bystander Risk:

Burstyn I. (2014). Peering through the mist: systematic review of what the chemistry of contaminants in electronic cigarettes tells us about health risks. BMC Public Health, 14(1),18. Retrieved from http://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2458-14-18

Quote(s): “Exposures of bystanders are likely to be orders of magnitude less, and thus pose no apparent concern”

“There was no evidence of potential for exposures of e-cigarette users to contaminants that are associated with risk to health at a level that would warrant attention if it were an involuntary workplace exposures. The vast majority of predicted exposures are < <1% of TLV. Predicted exposures to acrolein and formaldehyde are typically <5% TLV. Considering exposure to the aerosol as a mixture of contaminants did not indicate that exceeding half of TLV for mixtures was plausible.” 

Farsalinos, K., & Polosa, R. (2014). Safety evaluation and risk assessment of electronic cigarettes as tobacco cigarette substitutes: A systematic review. Therapeutic Advancement in Drug Safety, 5(2), 67-86. Retrieved from http://www.acvoda.nl/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/Therapeutic_Advances_in_Drug_Safety-2014-Farsalinos-2042098614524430.pdf

Quote(s): “based on the existing evidence from environmental exposure and chemical analyses of vapor, it is safe to conclude that the effects of EC use on bystanders are minimal compared with conventional cigarettes.”

 

Other ENDS Uses and information:

Nolan, M., Leischow, S., Croghan, I., Karimpati, S., Handson, A., Schroeder, D., & Warner, D. (2015). Feasibility of electronic nicotine delivery systems in surgical patients. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from http://ntr.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2016/01/31/ntr.ntw003.abstract

Quote(s): "ENDS use is feasible in adult smokers scheduled for elective surgery and is associated with a reduction in perioperative cigarette consumption. These results support further exploration of ENDS as a means to help surgical patients reduce or eliminate their cigarette consumption around the time of surgery."

McNeill, A., Brose, L., Calder, R., Hitchman, S. C., Hajek, P., & McRobbie, H. (2015). E-cigarettes: An evidence update: A report commissioned by Public Health England. Public Health England. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/457102/Ecigarettes_an_evidence_update_A_report_commissioned_by_Public_Health_England_FINAL.pdf

Quote(s): “There is no evidence that EC are undermining the long-term decline in cigarette smoking among adults and youth, and may in fact be contributing to it. Despite some experimentation with EC among never smokers, EC are attracting very few people who have never smoked into regular EC use.”